Eight Outer Temples
The Eight Outer Temples are eight Tibetan Buddhism temples located on the northeast of Chengde Imperial Summer Villa. The temples were successively built from 1713 to 1780, the Qing Dynasty. As their location is neither near the Great Wall or Beijing, the eight temples in Chengde were called the Eight Outer Temples.
The Eight Outer Temples are Puren Temple, Pushan Temple (no longer exists), Puning Temple, Anyuan Temple, Temple of the Potaraka Doctrine, Shuxiang Temple, Xumi Fushou Temple, and Guangyuan Temple. The eight temples are an integration of Tibetan, Mongolian and Han Chinese culture. For instance, the Temple of the Potaraka Doctrine was built as an imitation of Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet, with locals referring to it as "Little Polala Palace".
Besides cultural significance, the Eight Outer Temples are also regarded as treasures of Qing Dynasty history, religious art, architectural art, and garden buildings. Particularly, the Bodhisattva sculpture in Puning Temple is the world's tallest wooden Buddhist sculpture. Therefore, Puning Temple's nickname is "Big Buddha Temple".
In 1994, Chengde Imperial Summer Villa and Eight Outer Temples were established as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.